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Dr. Chandra Senan

Senior Research Officer

Staff Profile

Dr. Chandra Senan

Room: C37


+44 (0) 1978 293330


Chandra’s bachelor’s degree in Chemistry included a project involving the preparation of primary, secondary and tertiary sulfinamides and characterising them mainly by nuclear magnetic resonance (but also by infrared) spectroscopy.  For his Master’s degree, his dissertation involved the synthesis of various copolymers (hydrogels) – suitable for use as contact lens materials - by means of solution polymerisation. Different ratios of hydrophilic, hydrophobic and crosslinking monomers were used as the starting materials. The optical and mechanical properties of the hydrogels were then evaluated. 

Chandra then worked as research polymer chemist in Luxembourg for the International Synthetic Rubber Company for 4 years, carrying out numerous projects on both natural and synthetic rubbers (including blending with other materials) encompassing the compounding, vulcanisation and  compression moulding of the elastomers whose properties were then tested. The work also included the processing, injection moulding and evaluation of different copolymers such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene.

On returning to England, he undertook his Master’s degree in Business Systems Analysis, his dissertation being the design of a materials database and its user interface. He  was then employed in the Chemistry department of the North East Wales Institute at Deeside and undertook his postgraduate degree part-time.  After being relocated to Wrexham Plas Coch, Chandra obtained his PhD in Physical Chemistry in 1999.  His thesis involved the synthesis of a number of hydrophobically modified sodium polyacrylates and the characterisation of their solution and adsorption properties largely by rheology and electron spin resonance spectroscopy.  He has been employed at NEWI and subsequently Glyndŵr University ever since.

PhD (Physical Chemistry) Salford

MSc (Business Systems Analysis & Design) London 

MSc (Chemistry & Technology of Polymers) Birmingham

BSc, Hons (Chemistry) Birmingham

Bioplastic Fibers from Gum Arabic for Greener Food Wrapping Applications by Padil, V.V.T., Senan, C., Stanislaw, W., Miroslav, C., Seema, A. &  Rajender, S.V., ACS Sustainable Chemistry and  Engineering, 2019, 7 (6), pp 5900–5911 DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b05896, Publication Date (Web): February 15, 2019,  Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society

Green Synthesis of High Temperature Stable Anatase Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Gum Kondagogu: Characterization and Solar Driven Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dye by Saranya K.S., Vinod Vellara Thekkae Padil, Chandra Senan, Rajendra Pilankatta, Saranya K., Bini George, Stanislaw Waclawek & Miroslav Cernik; December 2018, Nanomaterials, Volume 8, Issue 12 :1002, doi: 10.3390/nano8121002

Effect of Temperature and Calcium Ion Concentration on Gelation and Rheological Properties of Low Methylated Pectin by Ajit K Surabhi, Chandra Senan & Asaud Azhar; Asian Journal of Chemistry; Vol. 30, No. 7 (2018), 1671-1674

Louis M. Nwokocha, Chandra Senan, Peter A. Williams and  Madhav P. Yadav: Characterisation and solution properties of a galactomannan from Bauhinia monandra seeds,  International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 101, August 2017, pp 904-909

Vellora Thekkae Padil Vinod, Stanisław Wacławek, Chandra Senan, Jaroslav Kupcik, Kristyna Peskova, Miroslav Cernık and H. M. Somashekarappa:

‘Gum karaya (Sterculia urens) stabilized zero-valent iron nanoparticles: characterization and applications for the removal of chromium and volatile organic pollutants from water’, March 2017,  Royal Society of Chemistry  Advances, 2017,7, pp 13997-14009

Vinod Vellora Thekkae Padil, Chandra Senan,  Stanisław Wacławek &  Miroslav Cerník. Electrospun fibers based on Arabic, karaya and kondagogu gums (May 2016) - International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 91 (2016) pp 299- 309

Vinod V.T.P.,  Chandra Senan and Miroslav Cernik.Dodecenyl succinic anhydride derivatives of gum karaya (Sterculia urens): Preparation, Characterisation and their Antibacterial Properties (March 23, 2015).  Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry.  DOI:  10. 1021/jf505783e

Louis M. Nwokocha, Ndubisi A. Aviara, Chandra Senan, Peter A. Williams. A comparative study of properties of starches from Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) grown in Nigeria (March 2014), Starch - Starke (Impact Factor: 1.22). 03/2014; DOI:10.1002/star.201300237

Wang, Hao; Williams, P.A.; Senan, C. (2014) Synthesis, characterization and emulsification properties of dodecenyl succinic anhydride derivatives of gum Arabic; Journal of Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 37, Issue (June, 2014) pp. 143-148.

Hui-Tin Chan, Chiu Peng Leh, Rajeev Bhat, Chandra Senan, Peter A. Williams & Alias A. Karim(2011). Molecular structure, rheological and thermal characteristics of ozone-oxidized starch,  Food Chemistry, Volume 126, Issue 3, pp 1019-1024.

Louis M. Nwokocha, Chandra Senan & Peter A. Williams (2011).Structural, physicochemical and rheological characterization of Tacca involucrata starch, Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 86, Issue 2, pp 789–796.

Yau-Hoong Kuan, Rajeev Bhat, Chandra Senan, Peter A. Williams  & Alias A. Karim (2009).  Effects of Ultraviolet Irradiation on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Gum Arabic,   Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 57 (19), pp 9154–9159.

Louis M. Nwokocha, Ndubisi A. Aviara, Chandra Senan & Peter A. Williams (2009).  A comparative study of some properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta, Linn) starches, Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 76, Issue 3, pp 362–367.

P. A. Williams, C. Sayers, C. Viebke,  C. Senan, C. Mazoyer & P. Boulenguer  (2005). Elucidation of the Emulsification Properties of Sugar Beet Pectin, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53 (9), pp 3592–3597 and also in Handbook of Hydrocolloids, 2nd Edition, ISBN 978-1-84569-414-2, Woodhead Publishing Ltd. edited by G.O.Philips & P.A.Williams

C. Senan, J. Meadows, P. T. Shone &  P. A. Williams (1994). Solution Behavior of Hydrophobically Modified Sodium Polyacrylate, Langmuir, 10 (7), pp 2471–2479.

Book Publications:

C.Senan (2018) The Long Reach Of Organic Chemistry: An Eclectic Journey Down Carbon Lane. Part 1: From the distant origins of carbon and its allotropic incarnations to the discoveries of myriad natural products and the ubiquity of this all-embracing element

C.Senan (2014)Oxygen:The story of a primal fluid of vital importance to all life forms on the planet and our intimate relationship with this extraordinary gas, ISBN: 978-0-9569281-6-0

Books inspired by my Wrexham Science Festival public lectures  at Glyndwr University in 2009, 2008 & 2007 on Blood, Water and Alcohol respectively:

C. Senan (2012). Time for reflection: The unsustainable demand for water and the consequences for our planet, ISBN 978-0956928146.

C. Senan (2011). Water a.k.a. Aqua, Diprotium Oxide, Dihydrogen Monoxide, Hydroxic Acid, Hydrogen Oxide, Hydroxylic Acid, Hydrogen Hydroxide, Hydric Acid, Oxidane - A biography of the planet’s foremost fundamental fluid,  ISBN 978-0956928115.

C. Senan (2011) Blood: Life’s most wondrous transportation system – a sanguine journey examining the complexities of this magical, crimson fluid in all its florid glory, ISBN 978-0956928122.

C. Senan (2011) Alcohol: A spiritual exposition, an intemperate odyssey, ISBN 978-0956928139.

Science-based ‘You Tube’ Videos to accompany my book publications:

C. Senan (2012) A new all-encompassing book about water.

C. Senan (2012) Time for Reflection – Help Stop The Madness.

I obtained my PhD in Physical Chemistry from Salford University, Manchester and have worked in chemical research, encompassing a diverse range of techniques such as chromatography, particle sizing, microscopy, calorimetry, spectroscopy and rheology.  My research has involved disparate polymeric materials including biopolymers (e.g. proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and polysaccharides), natural & synthetic rubbers and a variety of plastics. My studies have also included the physico-chemical characterisation of various macromolecules in solution, their adsorption onto different surfaces (monitored using electron spin resonance spectroscopy) and the corresponding effects on colloid stability.


I have researched water soluble polymers, both synthetic and hydrocolloid based. The latter includes starches, tree gum exudates (e.g. karaya, arabic, kondagogu, guar and locust bean), glycosaminoglycans (mucopolysaccharides), xanthan gum (produced synthetically or by bacterial fermentation), konjac mannan, pectin, chitosan, wheat protein, starch, cellulosics, hyaluronic acid, inulin, quorn, agar (from red algae), alginates & carrageenans (found in brown and red seaweeds respectively) and various dyes, sugars etc. Evaluation of their attributes has been acquired by a host of techniques including various modes of spectroscopy (uv/visible; FTIR); gel permeation chromatography and HPLC; controlled stress rheology, particle sizing (by dynamic light scattering and laser diffraction); particle image analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and optical & scanning electron microscopy.


My recent  research includes the following studies: the molecular weight determination of mucopolysaccharides (sulfated glycosaminoglycans) by light scattering in conjunction with gel permeation chromatography; assessing the stabilities of silica and titanium dioxide dispersions in the presence of dyes and other additives by monitoring zeta potential variation with pH to gauge isoelectric points and latterly, the hydrophobic modification of inulin (a hydrophilic polysaccharide) by controlled addition of different amounts of amphiphilic octenyl succinic anhydride to create an environmentally friendly, green detergent. I also collaborate with scientists at the Technical University of Liberec (Czech Republic) in nanofibres, bioremediation & environmental chemistry.